Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Psammobatis: Greek, psammos = sand + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 40 - ? m (Ref. 58018). Subtropical
Southwest Atlantic: Brazil to Argentina (Ref. 58839).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 102462); max. published weight: 116.08 g (Ref. 102462)
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 2.2 cm long and 1.8 cm wide (Ref. 41250).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.7 - 20, mean 8.7 °C (based on 148 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00278 - 0.00717), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .