Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 58°N - 36°N, 25°E - 75°E
Europe and Asia: Lower courses of rivers draining to northern shore of Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins, Danube drainage as far upstream as Belgrade; isolated populations in Axios and Aliakmon drainages (Greece); upper Tobol system (Ob drainage), Lake Issyk-kul basin (Kyrgyzstan) and Sarysu drainage (central Kazakhstan).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 8 - 11. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners in Europe by having large lateral scutes. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of the following characters: side of caudal peduncle without keel; and dorsal fin with 8-11 spines (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in fresh, brackish and marine waters (Ref. 58342). Inhabits swamps and slow-flowing streams with dense vegetation. Feeds on benthic invertebrates. Territorial during spawning season. Males construct a nest and guard the nest until the young swim away a few weeks later. Attain first sexual maturity at 1 year of age (Ref. 59043).
Territorial during spawning season. Males construct a nest made of filamentous algae and submerged plant and consisted of a separate entrance and exit. They guard the nest until the young swim away a few weeks later (Ref. 205, 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00181 - 0.01052), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .