Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
The few specimens examined of this species are most probably teratologic individuals of Leucoraja fullonica. A doubtful species until genetic/molecular clues are provided and published (B. Séret, pers.comm. 03/09) (Ref. 78469:14).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical
Northeast Atlantic: known only from the French Mediterranean coast and Gulf of Genoa in Italy.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3167)
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Stehmann, M. and D.L. Bürkel, 1984. Rajidae. p. 163-196. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 1. (Ref. 3167)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 15.2, mean 13.9 °C (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00131 - 0.00635), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .