Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 40°N - 27°N, 124°W - 114°W
Eastern Pacific: Mendocino County in northern California, USA to central Baja California in Mexico, including Guadalupe Island (off northern central Baja California).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults usually found in rocky areas, also in kelp and near jetties and pilings (Ref. 2850). From Surf zone to 50 m (Ref. 96339). Often in schools (Ref. 2850). Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12 - 18.7, mean 14.6 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00842 - 0.04514), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .