Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); jimbaranensis: Named for its type locality, the Jimbaran Bay. More on authors: Last, White & Fahmi.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Tropical
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to central Indonesia (Ref. 114953).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 76.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 89.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 74367); 99.4 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is defined by the following set of adult characters: disc wedge-shaped, width 32-33% TL, length more than 1.3 (1.35-1.39) times width; snout moderately elongate, length 3.4-3.6 times interspiracular distance, 5-5.5 times interorbital width; orbit medium-sized, 1.5-1.6 times spiracle length; nostrils weakly oblique, length 1.3-1.4 times internarial distance; preoral length 7.7-8.1 times internarial distance; anterior nasal flaps penetrating slightly into internarial space, however, well separated at their insertion; posterior nasal flaps broad; spiracular folds 2, outermost fold only slightly taller than inner fold; ridges of rostral cartilage almost parallel, converging slightly anteriorly but not constricted medially; anterior cartilage sickle shaped, pointed posteriorly; distance between fifth gill slits 3.1-3.4 times in ventral head length; prebranchial sensory pore patch obvious, extending to first gill slit; postscapular sensory canal obscure, without exposed lateral pores, not grooved; thorn patches on supraorbit, scapular region, and dorsal midline rudimentary, inconspicuous; inner margin of pelvic-fin slightly shorter than its base; interdorsal distance more than 2.5 (2.8-3.1) times first dorsal-fin base; dorsal caudal margin about 2.1 times preventral margin; upper jaw with 62-77 tooth rows; post-synarcual centra 176-180; nasal lamellae more than 50 (51-55); dorsal fin not distinctly bicolored; white spots absent on dorsal disc (Ref. 72461).
Demersal inshore on inner insular shelf. Mainly feeds on small crustaceans (Ref. 114953). The smallest pregnant female observed from this species was 74.7 cm TL; with pregnant females having 6-11 embryos, birth size unknown, but embryos well developed at 13 cm TL (Ref. 72461). Males mature at 77-80 cm TL. Females produces litters of 6-11 pups (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., W.T. White and Fahmi, 2006. Rhinobatos jimbaranensis and R. penggali, two new shovelnose rays (Batoidea: Rhinobatidae) from eastern Indonesia. Cybium 30(3):261-271. (Ref. 72461)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
Vulnerable (VU) (A2cd+3cd+4cd; B1ab(iii,v)); Date assessed: 31 January 2006
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00153 - 0.00594), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .