Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 40 - 60 m (Ref. 12290), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 42°N - 40°N, 20°E - 21°E
Europe: Lake Ohrid in Albania and Macedonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12290); max. published weight: 685.00 g (Ref. 12290); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 12290)
Distinguished from all its congeners in Balkan Peninsula by the following unique characters: usually 54-55 vertebrae (56-63 in other species of Salmo); and teeth on vomer extending to posterior-most end of shaft. Additional characters, but not unique, useful for its identification include the following: 100-114 scales along lateral line; 11-12 scale rows between lateral line and adipose; 2 supraorbitals; snout blunt, its length about equal to eye diameter; body plain yellowish silvery or with a few small, x-shaped pinkish dots; 18-22 gill rakers; and 25-29 pyloric caeca (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in lakes, from surface to about 20 m depth in summer and near shores in winter. Forms schools (Ref. 59043). Feeds on benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish larvae. Spawns in December-February. After spawning, it leaves the coastal areas and stays in deep water. Caught mainly in winter at depths of 25-50 m. Highly valued and usually consumed fresh (Ref. 12290). Threatened due to overfishing and the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100) and intentional hybridization that has been going for 50 years (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns along shores. Egg hatch in 45-55 days at 10° C (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00495 - 0.02215), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .