Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 188), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 24°N - 19°S, 164°W - 141°W (Ref. 188)
Eastern Pacific: endemic to the Marquesas Islands. Introduced into Hawaiian waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54980); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Body slender; total scutes 28 to 30; lower gill rakers strongly increasing with size of fish, about 45 at 5 or 6 cm standard length, 50 to 80 (maximum) at 6 to 10 cm. Vertical striae on scales not meeting at center, no perforations on hind part of scale. No dark spot at dorsal fin origin, no dark tips to caudal fin. Can be separated from other species by a combination of above characters.
Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Forms schools in coastal waters. Dominant species in beach seine hauls. Used as tuna bait (Ref. 6822). First reported case of clupeoid poisoning was in 1978 in the Hawaiian Is., probably caused by a planktonic dinoflagellate (Ref. 45133).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 63 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00399 - 0.01817), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .