Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 4740 m (Ref. 58018), usually 500 - ? m (Ref. 36655). Deep-water; 63°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal: In tropical to temperate waters; except Arctic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea and west of the Canary Islands. Eastern Pacific: California Current region (Ref. 36655). Western Pacific: Kuril Island (Ref. 52443). South China Sea (Ref.74511).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 4.0, range 3 - 7.3 cm
Max length : 7.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4241)
Mesopelagic and bathypelagic at 340-1200 m depth (Ref. 36665). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 36655). Significant morphological variation between Indo-Pacific and other populations.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ebeling, A.W., 1986. Melamphaidae. p. 427-432. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4241)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.3 - 5, mean 1.8 °C (based on 10291 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00402 - 0.02488), b=3.05 (2.83 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .