Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 130 m (Ref. 124120), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and the Black Sea
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124120); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following characters: protrusible mouth; lateral line scales not more than 73; head length is equal or greater than body depth; colouration clear yellowish or gray-brownish and a brownish spot at the base of the pectoral fin; color varies with age, sex and season (Ref. 124120).
Ocuurs on sand or muddy bottoms, down to about 130 m. This species is a demersal schooling fish, with eggs and larvae plaktonic (Ref. 124120).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Şalcioğlu, A., C. Gubili, G. Krey, S. Sakinan and R. Bi̇lgi̇n, 2021. Molecular characterization and phylogeography of Mediterranean picarels (Spicara flexuosa, S. maena and S. smaris) along the coasts of Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean. Regional Studies in Marine Science 45:1-13.. (Ref. 124120)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.01084 - 0.01397), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .