Spicara flexuosum

Spicara flexuosum Rafinesque, 1810

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drawing shows typical species in Sparidae.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range - 130 m (Ref. 124120), usually - m (Ref. ).   Subtropical; 0°C -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and the Black Sea

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124120); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species is distinguished by the following characters: protrusible mouth; lateral line scales not more than 73; head length is equal or greater than body depth; colouration clear yellowish or gray-brownish and a brownish spot at the base of the pectoral fin; color varies with age, sex and season (Ref. 124120).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Ocuurs on sand or muddy bottoms, down to about 130 m. This species is a demersal schooling fish, with eggs and larvae plaktonic (Ref. 124120).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Şalcioğlu, A., C. Gubili, G. Krey, S. Sakinan and R. Bi̇lgi̇n, 2021. Molecular characterization and phylogeography of Mediterranean picarels (Spicara flexuosa, S. maena and S. smaris) along the coasts of Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean. Regional Studies in Marine Science 45[101836]:1-13.. (Ref. 124120)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)


CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
BRUVS
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = No PD50 data   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.01084 - 0.01397), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .