Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jenyns.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 38°S - 58°S, 70°W - 57°W (Ref. 188)
Southwest Atlantic: 40°S to Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands (Ref. 188), also Burdwood Bank (Ref. 27363). Records from the Pacific may refer to Strangomera.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23;
Vertebrae: 52 - 58. Lower jaw slightly projecting, gill cover without bony radiating striae. Last two anal fin rays not enlarged. No dark spots on flanks. Pterotic bulla absent. Body dark blue dorsally and silvery white laterally and ventrally (Ref. 27363). All fins translucent (Ref. 27363).
A schooling species found in coastal waters. Food item of hakes, sea birds and seals in the Patagonian Falkland waters (Ref. 27363).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.3 - 10.6, mean 7.8 °C (based on 38 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00218 - 0.00552), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 200 [95, 404] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.71 [0.74, 5.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.8 [18.4, 23.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.325 [0.153, 0.673] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.6 [12.0, 47.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.2 [2.5, 84.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.745 [0.311, 2.365] mg/100g (wet weight);