Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Coiliinae
Etymology: Thryssa: Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Gilchrist & Thompson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 31°N - 40°S, 20°W - 88°E (Ref. 189)
Indian Ocean: Madagascar; coasts of Africa from Port Alfred northward to the Persian Gulf, but not in the Red Sea; coasts of Pakistan and India, perhaps to Calcutta and off Myanmar, but no records (Ref. 28, 189). Also from lower Zambezi delta in Mozambique (Ref. 39494).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5430)
soft rays: 34 - 44;
Vertebrae: 43 - 45. Diagnosis: Body compressed, belly with 16-19 pre-pelvic and 8-12 post-pelvic scutes, a total of 24-30 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus; maxilla long, reaching beyond base of first pectoral finray; first supra-maxilla a minute oval; lower gillrakers 18-24, the serrae on the inner edge in distinct clumps in larger fishes; anal fin with 3-4 unbranched rays and 31-40 branched rays; a dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening; inside of gill cavity bright orange (Ref. 189). This species overlaps the range of different other species of Thryssa, of which five have a similar maxilla, very small first supra-maxilla and overlapping gillraker counts; however of these five species, T. gautamiensis, T. malabarica, T. purava and T. whiteheadi all have the tip of the snout at or above the level of the centre of the eye, and the last two, plus T. stenosoma, have at least 38 branched anal finrays (Ref. 189).
A coastal, pelagic species (Ref. 28, 68964), apparently common along shore and in estuaries (Ref. 5430). Presumably schooling, occurring inshore and entering estuaries and lagoons, perhaps used as nursery areas, but moving further out in rainy seasons when coastal waters are freshened up by rivers (Ref. 189). It feeds on plankton organisms (Ref. 28). May be caught using ringnets (Ref. 5213). Generally marketed fresh, may be salted or dried (Ref. 5284).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 27.4 °C (based on 294 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00370 - 0.01075), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .