Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Torpedinidae
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335); adenensis: Named for its type locality, the Gulf of Aden; an adjective.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 125 - 230 m (Ref. 83892). Tropical; 14°N - 12°N, 47°E - 51°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - 39.5 cm
Max length : 10.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83892); 39.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished from all congeners its unique dorsal coloration, uniform reddish-, rusty-, or orange-brown and no any distinctive spots, blotches, or reticulations. Further distinct in having the following characters: spiracles with few, knoblike, and somewhat inconspicuous spiracular papillae (at least in sexually mature or almost mature specimens); spiracles and eyes relatively close together (no large gap in between); base of first dorsal fin extending just posterior to level of pelvic fin axil (not entirely positioned over bases of pelvic fins); distance between second dorsal and caudal fin greater than distance between first and second dorsal fins; claspers with fleshy integumental flap in clasper glans region (Ref. 83892).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Poorly known. Maturity size of males reported at 39 cm TL, still adolescent at 28 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
de Carvalho, M.R., M.F.W. Stehmann and L.G. Manilo, 2002. Torpedo adenensis, a new species of electric ray from the Gulf of Aden, with comments on nominal species of Torpedo from the western Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and adjacent areas (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes: Torpedinidae). Am. Mus. Novit. 3369:1-34. (Ref. 83892)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00844 - 0.03578), b=2.91 (2.72 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .