Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 160 m (Ref. 6871). Temperate; 37°S - 44°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Inhabits inshore waters, preferably muddy bottoms in the mouths of estuaries and in bays. Also found in rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, and worms (Ref. 12951). An inactive fish, lying concealed beneath the substrate where it is accidentally disturbed by divers and swimmers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.7 - 16.6, mean 15.1 °C (based on 164 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .