Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 10 - 70 m (Ref. 12260). Tropical; 41°N - 37°S, 19°E - 155°E
Indo-West Pacific: widespread in the Indo-West Pacific including the Red Sea, and reported as an invasive species in the eastern Mediterranean basin.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.8, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 29.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116943); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 1488)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Total number scutes 32 to 34. Vertical striae on scales not meeting at center, numerous small perforations on hind part of scale. A golden mid-lateral line down flank; dorsal and caudal fin margins dusky; a dark spot at dorsal fin origin. Lower gill rakers 45 to 59 (at 6 to 17 cm standard length, not increasing with size of fish after 6 cm standard length).
Forms schools in coastal waters. Adults feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton (crustacean and molluscan larvae) (Ref. 5213, 5284). Juveniles predominantly prefer crustaceans expanding to include phytoplankton in the diet as their length increases (Ref. 34224). Marketed fresh, dried-salted, boiled or made into fish balls. Possible or even probable confusion with other species (especially S. fimbriata in Indian waters) makes published biological data potentially unreliable.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.6 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1384 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00680 - 0.01018), b=3.03 (3.00 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.0 (0.8 - 2.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 13 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.32-1.8; tmax=7).
Prior r = 1.07, 95% CL = 0.71 - 1.60, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 281 [168, 493] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.1 [1.3, 3.4] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.7 [19.8, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.348 [0.175, 0.679] g/100g ; Selenium = 139 [70, 261] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.4 [5.0, 29.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.39 [0.97, 1.96] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.