Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anabantiformes
(Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae
(Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Malay/Javanese origin. Bleeker (1850, 1858) indicates Ikan Wadder Bettah as the local name of Betta trifasciata Bleeker, 1849 (now Betta picta, Valenciennes, 1846) in the Ambarawa Javanese dialect. Ikan Wader is a common Javanese name for smaller freshwater fishes, especially cyprinids (already used in Old Javanese). See Blust, R. & Trussel, S. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Web Edition (https://www.trussel2.com/acd/)..
More on authors: Ng & Kottelat.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Asia: known from Selangor and Perak in Malaysia. Its range extends to Riau Archipelago, Indonesia (Ref. 56386).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13093)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 28. Differs from Betta chloropharynx in the following characters: horseshoe-shaped black throat mark (vs. µ-shaped black throat mark); presence of both dorsal and caudal transverse bars (vs. absence); more subdorsal scales (mode 6 1/2 vs. 5-6). It is distinguished from Betta renata in the following characters: horseshoe-shaped black throat mark (vs. kidney-shaped); non-spotted opercle (vs. spotted opercle); opercle with yellow or brown lower margin (vs. black margin); fewer postdorsal scales (mode 12 vs. 9 1/2); more anal fin rays (mode 30 vs. 29); more lateral scales (mode 32 vs. 31). Can be differentiated from Betta spilotogena in the following characters: horseshoe-shaped black throat mark ((vs. black median spot); non-spotted opercle (vs. spotted opercle); opercle with yellow or brown lower margin (vs. back margin); presence of both dorsal and caudal transverse bars (vs. absence); and more subdorsal scales (mode 6 1/2 vs. 5 1/2) (Ref. 56386).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Occurs in backwater peat swamps with substrate usually peat and leaf litter. Large fish are found in the flowing sections of the blackwater streams and smaller ones appear to prefer pools and slower flowing waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ng, P.K.L. and M. Kottelat, 1994. Revision of the Betta waseri species group (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 42(3):593-611. (Ref. 13093)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00364 - 0.02626), b=2.97 (2.74 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).