Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 850 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate; 66°N - 46°N
North Pacific: Sea of Japan off Honshu, Japan to Navarin Canyon in the Bering Sea, west to Attu Island in the Aleutian chain and southeast to Washington, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 73.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80637); max. published weight: 1.6 kg (Ref. 51978); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 51978)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 1.1 - 6.8, mean 4.5 °C (based on 226 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00726 - 0.02086), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).