Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Acanthopagrus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, pagros, a kind of fish (Ref. 45335); berda: Name refers to the local vernacular name for the species; noun in apposition (Ref. 83673) More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 50 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 35°S, 22°E - 103°E
Indian Ocean, South Africa, Mozambique, the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, India, Phuket (Andaman Sea, specimen lost), and Malaysia (Penang Island and Langkawi Island, near Singapore). Western Pacific specimens recorded as A. berda refer to Acanthopagrus pacificus (Ref. 86288).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - 22 cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 3.2 kg (Ref. 3670); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 3627)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 8 - 9. This species is distinguished from all its congeners by the following characters: scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line 3.5; front edge of dorsal scaly area on head slightly convex, with small scales (fewer than 20) anteriorly; pored lateral-line scales 42-44; second anal-fin spine (2AS) longer than third anal-fin spine (3AS), 2AS/3AS ratio 1.23-1.50 (mean 1.36); strongly curved concavity on ventral edge of first two infraorbitals above rear end of maxilla, particularly obvious in specimens more than 13 cm SL; scales on preopercle flange absent; anal-fin membrane dark; molariform teeth strongly developed along both jaws, teeth rows strongly curved laterally at rear of lower jaw (Ref. 83673).
Feeds on invertebrates, including worms, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms (Ref. 5213), and small fish (Ref. 3670). Protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). The flesh is excellent. Sold fresh in markets. It is parasitised by the monogenean Anoplodiscus australis on the fins and body surface (Ref. 124057).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Size at sex change = 19.1 TL; age at sex change = 1.95 years (Ref. 55367).
Iwatsuki, Y. and P.C. Heemstra, 2010. Taxonomic review of the Western Indian Ocean species of the genus Acanthopagrus Peters, 1855 (Perciformes: Sparidae), with description of a new species from Oman. Copeia 2010(1):123-136. (Ref. 83673)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.6 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 856 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01363 - 0.02545), b=2.96 (2.91 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28-0.38; tmax=14; tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 102 [53, 202] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.857 [0.495, 1.812] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.6, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.43 [0.20, 0.91] g/100g ; Selenium = 66.3 [28.8, 154.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.83 [2.80, 32.74] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.952 [0.575, 1.567] mg/100g (wet weight);