Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Zanclidae
Etymology: Zanclus: Greek, za = an augmentative particle + Greek, agklino = to be on one´s back (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 182 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 182 m (Ref. 27115). Subtropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 32°N - 37°S, 21°E - 70°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Rapa and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to the Lord Howe Island. Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California to Peru (Ref. 9267).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6113); common length : 21.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 5755)
(total): 6 - 7;
soft rays: 31 - 37. Strongly compressed discoid body. Tubular snout with a small mouth containing numerous elongate bristle-like teeth. Dorsal spines elongated into a whip-like filament.
Inhabit turbid inner lagoons, reef flats, and clear seaward rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 1602, 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Generally encountered in small groups of 2 or 3 individuals (Ref. 9267). Adults occur singly, in pairs and occasionally are seen in large schools (Ref. 48637). Feed on small encrusting animals (Ref. 6113). Size of metamorphosis from postlarva to juvenile is 7.5 cm (Ref. 9267). The long pelagic larval stage is the reason for the wide distribution and strong colouration that shows no geographical variation (Ref. 48637). Popular aquarium fish but rarely survives in tanks (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 4016 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00674 - 0.04483), b=3.06 (2.83 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.1 [21.6, 74.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.996 [0.561, 1.672] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.1, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.178 [0.103, 0.302] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.4 [6.6, 29.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30 [7, 119] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.08 [0.67, 1.71] mg/100g (wet weight);