Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Notacanthiformes
(Halosaurs and deep-sea spiny eels) > Notacanthidae
(Deep-sea spiny eels)
Etymology: Notacanthus: Greek, noton = back + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 125 - 3285 m (Ref. 58426), usually 128 - 1000 m (Ref. 117245). Deep-water; 61°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E
Worldwide except in tropical waters (Ref. 27363). North Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and Cape Blanc, Mauritania north to Davis Strait, Canada and Iceland. South Atlantic: off South Africa. Southeast Pacific: off Chile. Eastern Indian Ocean: Australia (Ref. 7300). Southwest Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4449)
Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302) and epibenthic (Ref. 58426). Not uncommon in depths around 180 m off Iceland and Greenland. Individuals with nearly ripe eggs have been found in late autumn off Iceland. Mostly found at depths well below 200 m, but enters slightly shallower water on Grand Banks in Canada (Ref. 7251). Feeds primarily on sea anemones (Ref. 4449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Notacanthidae. p. 133-135. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4449)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1 - 14.9, mean 6.1 °C (based on 2531 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5161 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00191 (0.00103 - 0.00354), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 27.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 13.6 [6.6, 24.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.204 [0.112, 0.377] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [16.0, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.215 [0.106, 0.424] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.5 [10.1, 58.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.3 [2.7, 49.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.419 [0.265, 0.667] mg/100g (wet weight);