Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathoides: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Knysna, South Africa (Ref. 4281) to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281)
Occur in protected coastal shallows over or among algae, seagrasses (Ref. 41878), or floating weeds (Ref. 1602). Juveniles occasionally found near the surface (Ref. 4281). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Used in Chinese medicine to extract Hailong, one of the important drugs (Ref. 12206). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35416).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3423 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00036 (0.00016 - 0.00084), b=3.18 (2.99 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming annual Fec<1000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 107 [60, 197] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.784 [0.504, 1.251] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.7, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.121 [0.073, 0.212] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.8 [23.3, 91.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.8 [13.5, 109.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.35 [0.94, 1.92] mg/100g (wet weight);